Special Report: International Operations Questions

By Declan Selleck




40. How many aircraft within a fleet must have completed a RVSM monitoring flight to satisfy the European requirement?
Group 1 approved and indicates data indicates RVSM compliant, 2 Aircraft per fleet
Group 2 approved with insufficient data or Revs compliance, 60% or airframes
Non group aircraft, 100% of airframes
http://www.ecacnav.com/content.asp?PageID=65
The State of the Operator that has issued an RVSM approval to an operator shall establish a requirement which ensures that a minimum of two aeroplanes of each aircraft type grouping of the operator have their height-keeping performance monitored, at least once every two years or within intervals of 1,000 flight hours per aeroplane, monitoring of that aeroplane shall be accomplished within the specified period.
ICAO Annex 6, Part I, Para. 7.2.7, Part II Para. 2.5.2.7
41. What is a Journey Log Book?
A Journey Log Book shall be maintained in respect of every aircraft engaged in international navigation. In this log shall be entered particulars of the aircraft, crew and each journey. Recommended items are aeroplane nationality, registration, date, crew names and duty assignments, departure and arrival times and points, purpose and observations of the flight, PIC signature.
ICAO Article 29, 34 ICAO Annex 6, Part 1, Paragraph 11.4 ICAO Annex 6, Part 2, Paragraph 2.8.2
42. How does a U.S. operator satisfy the requirement for a Journey Log Book according to the FAA?
The term logbook in this context means a navigation log and/or plotting chart that may be kept in the form of electronic data. This
record should be maintained for 6 calendar-months following the flight. FAA Order 8900.1 Vol 4, Chap. 12, Para. 4-1299 c
43. How do I determine if a country is WGS 84 compliant?
The specific country’s AIP will list this information. An FAA approved source for this information may be found at: http://www.jeppesen.com/company/publications/wgs-84.jsp
44. What is the difference between the RNAV Specification and the RNP Specification for airspaces based on Performance Based Navigation?
RNAV specifies navigation accuracy only. RNP specifies navigation accuracy, alerting and monitoring ICAO Doc# 9613, “Executive Summary”
45. How is the difference between indicated and true Mach determined?
There should be a table or chart in your AFM, which will allow you to compute the correction factor to be applied.
46. When are passengers entering the United States on a Part 91 flight required to have a visa?
US Citizens do not require a visa. Non-US citizens always require a visa unless the company that operates the aircraft is a participant in the visa waiver program and the passenger is a resident of a country that is listed on the approved list by CBP. The Visa Waiver Program (VWP) and The Electronic System for Travel Authorization (ESTA) is what we are speaking of here. Frequently Asked Questions about the Visa Waiver Program and the Electronic System for Travel Authorization http://www.cbp.gov/xp/cgov/travel/id_visa/business_pleasure/vwp/
47. Are crew members who are not U.S. citizens but have a green card required to have a visa for entry into the U.S. on the aircraft they are flying?
An Alien Registration Card aka Green Card is proof of Permanent US Residence so a US visa is not required and they may enter and depart the US with their passport and ARC.
48. What is the meaning of listing airport elevation in hPa on some Jeppesen approach plates?
it is just another way of providing field elevation. There is a table that provides a conversion of hPa to feet. In reality it is the difference between a QNH and a QFE altimeter setting in hPa at an airport.
Jeppesen Introduction Section, Page #103
49. Are there fuel remaining requirements from and Equal Time Point to the diversion airport?
There are no regulatory requirements for fuel remaining at ETP of oceanic/remote diversion airports. Commercial operations or Extended Range (ETOPS) do have specific planning requirements.
AC 91-70a and AC 120-42b, UK CAP 513
50. What are the requirements to become approved for RNP-4?
Long-range navigation systems must be capable of RNP-4 navigation, meaning the systems must meet the 4 NM accuracy requirement, provide alerting and monitoring for the LOA/OpSpec to be issued.
PBN-BASED RNP 4 JOB AID, 5/6/09 FAA Order 8400.33, 9/15/05
51. Where in the world does RNP 4 airspace exist?
RNP-4 is used in support of 30/30NM separation in the SOPAC. FAA Order 8400.33, 9/15/05
52. Does a Part 91 operator require a LOA or specific training to conduct operations in the Polar region?
No LOA or specific training is required for a Part 91 operator to conduct Polar operators. However, specific navigation authorization is required for commercial operators.
FAA Order 8900.1 Vol.4, Chap.1, Sec.2, Para 4-24
53.Where in Annex 6 does it state that an ELT must operate on 406 MHz?
ICAO does not have a requirement for a specific ELT transmitter. Annex 6 describes how many and if automatic or not, Annex 10 describes specifications for the actual transmitter. An individual
country’s AIP will state the requirement for Either 121.5 or 406MHz transmitters.
ICAO Annex 6, Part I, Para. 2.4.12 ICAO Annex 10 Volume III, Part II, Chapter 5.
54.Do the North Atlantic Region lost communications procedures apply in the WATRS Plus airspace?
Yes, the Western Atlantic Area is still a part of the North Atlantic Region
55. Where would you look for the route information if cleared on the following clearance in Canadian Airspace, FOXXE N26A SPOTE N28A MT N32A SSM?
This is a combination of three different North American Routes. The route information is published in the FAA’s Northeast Airport and Facilities Directory or the Canadian Flight Supplement. They are also published in the Jeppesen Atlantic Airway manual Enroute Section.
56. Is TCAS II with software change 7 a part of the required equipment for operating in RVSM airspace?
No. TCAS/ACAS equipage requirements are a function of what country’s airspace you are operating in. AC 91-85, FAA Order 8900.1 Vol.4, Chap.10, Sec.12 ICAO Document #9574.
57. Is it possible to do CPDLC with AFIS?
No. These are two separate and distinct communication protocols. Global Operational Datalink Document (GOLD), Chap.3, Para 3.1
58. Can I pass position reports via AFIS?
No, it is not a SARPS compliant system.
59. Are there still RVSM transition areas in existence?
Yes. For example RVSM transition airspace is used exiting the NAT into Europe. http://www.ecacnav.com/RVSM
60. When accomplishing a position assurance check FMS position should be checked against what navigation sources?
Ground Based NAVID such as a VOR/DME or a RADAR position plot from ATC. AC91-70a, Chap.10 and NAT Doc. 007 Para. 8.4.9
61. Is the FAA first class medical valid for 12 months, if under the age of 40 in international operations?
Yes, this is correct, for a commercial pilot or a pilot holding an airline transport license the medical is valid for 12 months from the date of the medical examination. ICAO Annex 1, Amdt#168 Para 1.2.5.2
62. Where do I look for specific lost communications procedures for individual States?
Country specific procedures can be found in the Aeronautical Information Publication for that country. Jeppesen reprints portions of these documents for easy reference in the “Emergency” section.
63. If an aircraft is registered in the Isle of Man but based in United States what are some of the operating issues that will have an influence on registration and ownership including EASA, JAR-OPS 2, FAA oversight, RVSM, MNPS, MEL and crew certification and training?
Isle-of-Man requires a person to have IOM, UK or EEA states citizenship, or reside, or have a place of business in Isle-of-Man.
No insurance premium tax (UK6%), “M” registration numbers.
The aircraft cannot be used for commercial air transport. Do provide airspace approvals (valid for 3 years)
o RVSM o MNPS o RNAV o Cat II/Cat III Approaches o London City Airport steep approach airspace approval
Aircraft Radio License (valid for one year) Flight Crew License Validations (valid for one year) Maintenance Program Approval Document
Operational requirements including Maintenance and training would have to be to US standards.
Isle-of-Man, Civil Aviation Authority http://www.gov.im/ded/isleofmancivilaviationadministrationcaa.xml 14CFR, Part 91, Subpart, H
64. As an American operator are you allowed to execute RNAV (GNSS) approaches?
Yes, GNSS is the generic term for what US operators know as GPS. AC 90-94
65. Can a Part 91 operator use the Polar routes from the U.S. to China and Russia?
Yes. FAA Order 8900.1 Vol.4, Chap.1, Sec.2, Para 4-24
66. Is CPDLC required to fly the Polar routes?
No. HF is the normal means of long distance communication. AC 91-70A, Chap.14
67. What are the SMS requirements pertaining to an N registered aircraft operating under Part 91 based outside the United States?
Commercial or Private operations, the individual state you are operating in and registered in will publish requirements for SMS. This will be published in their AIP.
68. Why is it important to have average magnetic heading available to you on your master document?
This will be required in the case of failure of the LRNS. The average magnetic heading at the waypoints will vary enough to make course correction impossible. A mid-point average will make use of a Rhumb line for navigation and will dampen the errors. AC 91-70a, Chap.10, para. 10.3
69. Is there a way to validate routing in Europe through EuroControl?
Yes. This is done thru the Route Availability Document. Found on Euro control’s Network Operations Portal. One will need to compare the proposed route to the routes listed in the RAD. A fee based portion of this website provides for an automatic feature to this operation. https://www.cfmu.eurocontrol.int/PUBPORTAL/gateway/spec/index.html
70. If executing published contingency procedures in an oceanic airspace is it necessary to submit an Assigned Altitude Deviation Report?
Yes. Anytime you deviate from your altitude clearance including TCAS/ACAS turbulence or contingency events 300ft or more an
Altitude Deviation Report Form should be filed. This form is found in NAT Document 007, Attachment 2
71. Where is the requirement to have two sets of corrective lens when operating internationally?
Only for near vision correction. ICAO Annex 1, para. 6.3.3.4.1 An individual country’s AIP may differ from this requirement.
72. When an aircraft is imported into the European Union how long is that importation valid for?
Six Months for Temporary, Permanent, until you sell the aircraft. UK Customs and Revenue Website: http://customs.hmrc.gov.uk/channelsPortalWebApp/channelsPortalWebApp.portal?_nfpb=true&_pageLabel=pageLibrary_ShowContent&id=HMCE_CL_ 000237&propertyType=document
73. What are 6 digit short codes and how do I utilize them?
The 6-digit numbers are a security feature. Currently only those aircraft equipped with INMARSAT will be able to complete the telephone connection. OEM operating instructions will give specific dialing instructions.
Contact numbers and procedures are published for many of the ATS agencies.
74. What are the navigation system accuracy requirements when operating above or below MNPS airspace in the North Atlantic Region?
MNPS airspace extends from FL285 up to FL420, inclusive. MNPS places an accuracy and redundancy into the navigation specification. Above or below MNPS redundancy is the only requirement. However, deviations of 25NM or more are still defined as a Gross Navigation Error. http://www.faa.gov/air_traffic/publications/notices/ 14CFR 91.511, NAT Doc #007
75. Are there time limits associated with IRS operation in various airspaces and when does the clock start for any existing time limits?
Yes. RNAV-10 (RNP-10) airspace operations places a time limit on INS operations. This begins from the moment the LRNS is place into “NAV” or is last updated via GNSS, DME/DME, VOR/DME or manually.
FAA Order 8400.12b, para. 13
76. Is it possible to receive a North Atlantic oceanic crossing clearance via data link if sitting on the ground at an airport close to the oceanic boundary?
Yes. If less than 45mins to the OEP, request datalink (RCL) clearance 10mins prior to engine start-up. NAT Operational Bulletin, #2010-008
77. Where can I find conversion charts that could typically be used in international flight operations?
ICAO Annex 5, Jeppesen “Tables and Codes” section.
78. Where can I find AFTN addresses for any airport worldwide to file flight plans?
ICAO Annex 10, chap. 4 explains that the AFTN address is the ICAO four-letter identifier with a suffix for the particular office associated with the aerodrome.
79. I’ve heard that the SLOP program is suspended, or no longer recommended. Is this correct, and is there a document reference?
NO. Strategic Lateral Offset is an ongoing procedure for remote and oceanic airspace. It is described in ICAO Doc#4444, chap. 15
80. When do you leave a Flight Level for an Altitude?
The change from Flight Level to Altitude is made at the Transition Level in descent. ICAO Doc.#8168, Sec3, Chap.4, Para 2.1.4
81. What needs to be onboard the aircraft to document that an SMS program is in place?
IBAC is issuing true and Certified copies of a company IS-BAO Certificate of Registration to be carried on the plane
82. Are there any issues to be aware of when operating in the international environment on a temporary airman certificate?
ICAO Annex 1 has no specific limitation. Individual countries may have different limitations published in their AIP.
83. What is a Load Classification Number (LCN)? Where do I find information on it?
PCN/Pavement Classification Numbers are the current ICAO terms. LCN/ Load Classification Numbers are obsolete ICAO terms. These numbers are published in the country’s AIP in the Airport and Facilities section for a particular aerodrome. You will also find this information in the front of the airport section in Jeppesen
84. Where can I find the requirements for squawking 2000 when operating in the NOPAC system?
The FAA’s Alaskan or Pacific Supplement.
85. Is there a requirement to save the NOTAMS associate with an international trip for six months?
No. A Journey Log Book shall be maintained in respect of every aircraft engaged in international navigation. In this log shall be entered particulars of the aircraft, crew and each journey. Recommended items are aeroplane nationality, registration, date, crew names and duty assignments, departure and arrival times and points, purpose and observations of the flight, PIC signature. ICAO Article 29, 34 ICAO Annex 6, Part 1, Paragraph 11.4 ICAO Annex 6, Part 2, Paragraph 2.8.2 FAA Order 8900.1, Volume 4, Chapter 12, Paragraph 4-1299
86. Is there any specific PRNAV LOA required for PRNAV arrivals and departures for the different European countries?
No. One LOA will cover the whole of EU Airspace. AC 90-96a
87. Where there is a filed flight plan indicating a change in altitude at a specified point, in lieu of specific ATC instructions does the crew of an aircraft change altitude to conform to the filed flight plan?
In normal operations including oceanic airspace the answer is no. Crews are expected to fly the coordinated clearance and not the filed flight plan. No climb should be made without a clearance. Absent an emergency or TCAS RA comply with clearance 14CFR 91.123, ICAO Doc# 4444, Para. 4.5
87. When did the changes to General Oceanic Contingency procedures become effective?
Amendment #2 to ICAO Doc#4444 went into effect 19NOV09
88. Is the use of the English language for aviation communication mandated by ICAO? If so where is that documented?
ICAO Annex 1, proficiency standards are contained in Appendix 1
89. What approvals do I need to operate in Russian airspace?
The Russian International AIP describes the needs for over flight and landing permits. US International NOTAMS describe the US permitting requirements.
90. While operating my BBJ how do I know that an ADS C contract has been established?
Specific FMC’s may vary; look for the “ATC LogOn” page. On this page find the “ADS” line select key. Find the “Active” prompt there. This is the indication of at least one active ADS contract. The parameters of the contract can be found on “Page 2” of the “ATC LogOn” page.
91. Where can I find an explanation of the forecast shear on my computer flight plan?
AC 00-45g Aviation Weather Services or your weather services provider.
92. Where can I find information relative to using the North Atlantic European Route Scheme and where are the routings published?
This is done thru the Route Availability Document. Found on Euro control’s Network Operations Portal. From the link below, look in the lower left corner of the page, under “Route Availability Document”
https://www.cfmu.eurocontrol.int/PUBPORTAL/gateway/spec/index.ht ml
93. Where do I find information relative to standard phraseology to be used in international aviation?
PANS-ATM Chapter 12, Section 12.3 ICAO Annex 1, Appendix 1 ICAO Document 9432 – Manual of Radiotelephony
94. What is “International Airspace”
Any flight past the 12NM limit of any coastline is to be considered ICAO international airspace. 14CFR 91.703, ICAO Annex 2
95. Do I have to know where the nearest SAR facility is on every international flight?
Operators shall ensure that the pilot has onboard especial information concerning the Search and Rescue services in the area over which the aeroplane will be flown. International airspace. ICAO Annex 6, Part 1, Chap.3, Para 3.1.7
96. Where is the bottom line for international procedures, ICAO or the country I’m flying in?
The country whose airspace you are flying in has complete sovereignty over the airspace above its territory. ICAO provides a set of standard and recommended practices that they may choose to accept as a whole or only specific parts. 14CFR 91.703, ICAO Article 1
97. How long does a SAFA check take to complete?
Usually no more than one hour. Inspectors are instructed to take all reasonable measures to not delay the aircraft unreasonably. AR Gen. 435
98. What special training or checkride do I need to fly international as a Part 91 operator?
None, you are not required to train, you are only required to be knowledgeable. How you get that knowledge is up to you. FAA Order 8900.1 Vol.4, Chap. 1, Sec.2, Para 4-24.
99. What radiation hazards exist when operating at the altitudes that we fly at?
There are significant risks to humans at higher flight levels. These risks are details in a DOT report DOT/FAA/AM-03/16 and AC 120-61A
100. Is there a prescribed contingency reporting procedure for reporting a 15NM off-set?
No, there is no prescribed reporting procedure, however you should contact ATC and advise them of the action taken and request an amended clearance as soon as possible. ICAO Doc#4444, Chap. 15, Section 15.2


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Declan Selleck

Declan Selleck

Declan is a Flight Service Specialist with OPSGROUP.

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