1. When do both pilots in the aircraft have to be type rated in the aircraft?
When the aircraft is certified with a minimum crew of two, or as directed by listing authority. ICAO Annex 1, Chapter 2, Page 2, Paragraph a, c
2. When entering/exiting oceanic airspaces are you required to fly over a designated entry/exit point?
Your coordinated oceanic crossing clearance must always show entry and exit of oceanic air space over a designated Oceanic Entry/Exit Point (OEP). In actual flight operations, tactical route clearances may be given by an Air Route Traffic Control Center that could bypass the OEP. In this case this is not a problem. Remember that separation between aircraft is established at the entry point and in order to maintain those separations crews must adhere to the coordinated oceanic crossing clearance. PANS-ATM Chap. 15, Page 15-7 Para.
3. Where and how do you check for RVSM aircraft monitoring compliant for RVSM operations in Europe?
Eurocontrol Website: http://www.ecacnav.com/RVSM/Height_Monitoring – Latest results from HMU’s in Europe can be found here. Search on your registered operator and specific registration number.
4. Must pilots be trained in order to participate on an international trip?
For Part 91/GA operations, no specific training is required. Part 91 operators are required to be knowledgeable and how that knowledge is attained is their prerogative. As a Part135/Commercial operator, require specific navigation training and procedure training in accordance with their approved training manual. FAA Order 8900.1 Vol.4, Chap.2, Sect. 2, Para. 4-24
5. Is CPDLC required to fly the Polar routes?
No. HF is the normal means of long distance communication. AC 91-70A, Chap.14
6. When do I change altitude and routing in the case of lost communication in international airspace?
In the case of lost communications follow the published lost comm procedure for that country or oceanic region. In lieu of specific lost comm procedures consideration should be given to following ICAO Lost Comm procedures. ICAO Doc# 4444, Para. 15.3
7. Do Tokyo/Fukuoka Area Control Centers publish 6 digit short codes for SATCOM use?
No, but the Public Switched Telephone Numbers can be found in the Japanese AIP. Air Traffic Flow Management 24-hr number: 092-608- 8870. Japanese AIP, Enroute section, Chapter 1.9, Paragraph 1.3

8. Is there a requirement to be ACAS II equipped when operating in South America?
Commercial operators: Yes, if greater than 19 Passengers and 5700kg, Annex 6, Part 1, Paragraph 6.18.2 GA operators, Yes, only if greater than 30 Passengers or 15,000kg. Annex 6, Part 2, Paragraph 3.6.10
9. What considerations exist when shooting an approach at an airport such as Thule Greenland, which is at 76 degrees north latitude?
Ground based navigation facilities are reference to True North vice Magnetic North. Aircraft FMC and Navigation displays need to be re- configured to allow for IFR operations. This is also correct for the Canadian Northern Domestic Airspace. Canadian AIM Rules of the Air and Air Traffic Services Section 2.0 Para. 2.2.1
10. Are there any publications that outline the problems associated with operating in countries that are not WGS 84 compliant and how that affects FMS approach procedures?
Several FAA, EASA and ICAO documents require that non WGS- 84 data not be used for approaches with GNSS guidance. Your approved Flight Manual and OEM recommendations are the best place to look for procedures on how to comply with these requirements. FAA Advisory Circular 90-94 Para.3b and AC 20-138B. ICAO Annex 10, Vol. 1, Chap. 3.Para., AMC 20-27 Para 5.3
11. What takes precedent, ICAO documents (PANS, SARPS, Regional Supplementary Procedures) or commercially available products?
ICAO publications and national regulations always take precedence over any commercially available products. The commercial products take their information from these documents and others that may be produced by an ICAO region; however there are some times errors when this information is transcribed. If you want the unadulterated information always go to the source documents
12. Does importing your aircraft into the European Union relieve you of Cabotage considerations?
No. Import status is primarily concerned with tax status not Cabotage activity. For example; in the UK a VAT tax is added to the importation fees.
See the EU website www.Europa.EU
13. When flying from the U.S. to St. Thomas do both pilots have to be type rated?
From the aspect of arrival and destination operations, No. 14CFR 61.55 describes SIC Type ratings. However, once in airspace over the High Seas, Yes both pilots are required to be Type rated. This can be further complicated if an enroute divert is required to a foreign country. This county’s AIP would apply.
14.What is the purpose of Strategic Lateral Offset and where may it be utilized?
SLOP is designed to reduce lateral overlap of aircraft. It should be utilized to keep aircraft from passing directly above or below other aircraft. PANS-ATM Chap. 15, Para. 15.2.4 Note#3
15. Is there a prescribed contingency procedure for position reporting after an aircraft has offset 15 nautical miles from track (course) centerline?
No specific procedures address this issue. Best practice recommendation would be to obtain a new or revised clearance at the earliest possible time. PANS-ATM Chap. 15, Para.
16. When coordinating your oceanic clearance with Shanwick via ORCA are you required to contact Shanwick and provide a voice read back?
No. Unless there is any doubt as to the clearance or downlink capability. In such a case, revert to voice communication. NAT Operations Bulletin 2010-6 18MAR04
17. How do you determine if a country uses PANS OPS criteria in promulgating straight in approaches and TERPS for promulgating circling procedures?
The specific county’s AIP will explain the design criteria used. Look in the “General” section and the “Aerodrome” sections for confirmation. Jeppesen provides this information in the ATC Section of the J Aids. Look up the country in the Rules and Procedures part and specifically under the Procedures Limitations and Options heading.
18. If you lose communication with air traffic control should you follow your last clearance or comply with published lost communications procedures?
You should follow the published lost communications procedures published in the AIP for the country or the regional supplementary procedures for the region you are flying in. You may also check the Jeppesen Emergency Section to ascertain lost communications procedures if no other resources are available. If no published procedures can be determined consideration should be given to following ICAO lost communication procedures found in PANS-ATM Chapter 15 Para. 15.3
19. What constitutes a lost communications situation?
When an aircraft station fails to establish contact with the aeronautical station on the designated frequency, it shall attempt to establish contact on another frequency appropriate to the route. If this attempt fails, the aircraft station shall attempt to establish communication with other aircraft or other aeronautical stations on frequencies appropriate to the route. In addition, an aircraft operating within a network shall monitor the appropriate VHF frequency for calls from nearby aircraft. If these attempts fail transmit in the blind. General rules, which are applicable in the event of communication system failure are contained in Annex 2 to the convention. Annex 10, Volume 2, Para 5.2,2,7

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Declan Selleck

Declan Selleck

Declan is a Flight Service Specialist with Flight Service Bureau.

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